Definitive recommendations regarding the best method to treat the diarrheic calf cannot be made at this time. The exact recommendation will probably depend on the situation. At the present time, I do not believe it is detrimental to withdraw milk from the diet for periods up to 24 to 36 hours, as Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Sydney long as the calf is in good condition and is returned to a full ration (maintenance plus) of milk within 3 to 5 days from the start of milk withdrawal. Milk withdrawal is most likely to be beneficial in those situations in which the calf is depressed and has lost its sucking reflex. Oral electrolyte solutions should be fed at the rate of 4-6 L/day if diarrhea is profuse or if the calf is depressed. As the calf feels better and the severity of diarrhea decreases, the amount of oral electrolyte solution can be reduced. It is sensible to continue feeding oral electrolyte solution, perhaps at the rate of 2 L/day, as long as the calf scours. Products containing 40-80 mEq/L of alkalizing agent give the best results. The higher concentrations may be more effective in older calves. Products containing bicarbonate or metabolizable base can be used when the calf is held off milk, whereas only solutions that contain a metabolizable base should be used if the calf is fed milk that day. Milk withdrawal may only be beneficial in calves that are losing their interest in sucking. Early reintroduction to milk and avoidance of milk deprivation in bright calves will help maintain condition and may boost immune function and mucosal repair. Calves that are held off milk for more than 2 days and calves that are deprived of milk while in poor condition should be fed a high-energy electrolyte solution. Beef calves tend to be treated while they are still on the dam, and if they are separated from the cow, it is usually only for a short period. This maintains the cow's lactation and maternal instincts. Cow's milk is better digested than many milk replacers and is available at a steady rate because calves suck frequently. Calves maintained on cow's milk should be fed an oral electrolyte solution containing a metabolizable base. Gastric fill from the electrolyte solution will tend to reduce milk consumption. It is important to prevent the calf from gorging on milk, which sometimes happens when a calf that is depressed and not sucking regains its appetite and has access to a very full udder. Cows that have been separated from Buy Oakley Holbrook their calf or that have distended udders should be milked out.